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Workshop and Report Launch: Accelerating Off-Grid Electrification in Tanzania
Workshop and Report Launch: Accelerating Off-Grid Electrification in TanzaniaBy Jensen Shuma

Tanzania, with about 75 per cent of the population in rural areas, has a rural electrification rate of about 6 per cent, which is very low compared to sub-Saharan Africa’s average of 10 per cent. Given the country’s size and sparse distribution of its rural population, grid extension to most parts of the country, including isolated rural areas, appears to be not feasible due to high investment costs. Electrification by renewable energy mini-grids (MGs) in rural area seems to be an economical option for increasing access to electricity without undermining climate change mitigation efforts.

The statistics shows that energy consumption in the country is composed of residential areas (72.5 per cent), industries (14.4 per cent), transport (5.8 per cent), agriculture (4.2 per cent) and others (3.1 per cent). Until June 2016, the total power installed capacity was 1,357.69MW of which 157.7MW was coming from mini-grids. According to the Tanzania National Census of 2012, the country’s population was 44.9 million, with a growth rate of 2.9 per cent per annum. The current projected population of the country is more than 50 million. The national electrification target is to achieve access rate of 75 per cent by 2035.

Increasing access to electricity has so far remained to be a big challenge. In 2016, only about 24 percent had access to electricity with a dramatic difference between population accessing electricity in urban areas (43 per cent access) and rural areas (just 6 per cent).

The workshop was organized by the World Resource Institute (WRI) in collaboration with TaTEDO and debated on options for accelerating off-grid electrification solutions in Tanzania. The workshop was held at the Serena Hotel, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania in October 4, 2017 from 8:30 am to 5.00 pm.

The main objective is to debate on efforts, experiences and challenges of accelerating development of the off-grid electrification in Tanzania.

This event brought together 50 participants (DFIs, Private Sector and CSOs and Media) working in the energy, environment, finance and related sectors to discuss options for accelerating off-grid electrification solutions in Tanzania. The workshop focused on exploring some of the resources that government, development finance institutions, entrepreneurs and civil society stakeholders can draw on to implement off-grid solutions. WRI and TaTEDO also launched their new report on "Accelerating Mini-grid Deployment in Sub-Saharan Africa: Lessons from Tanzania" and engage stakeholders in discussions around some of the key findings of the report.

Low Carbon Emission Energy Technologies for Supporting the Paris Agreement for Climate Change in the East Africa (Case of TaTEDO, Tanzania)
Low Carbon Emission Energy Technologies for Supporting the Paris Agreement for Climate Change in the East Africa (Case of TaTEDO, Tanzania)By Jensen Shuma, TaTEDO, Tanzania


Climate Change refers to a change in climate patterns attributed largely to the increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide produced by the use of carbon pollutants. Climate change may cause a change in average weather conditions, or in the time variation of weather around longer-term average conditions. The main causes of climate change are broadly the rate at which energy is received from the sun and the rate at which it is lost to space determine the equilibrium temperature and climate of earth. This energy is distributed around the globe by winds, ocean currents, and other mechanisms to affect the climates of different regions. Factors that can shape climate are called climate forcing or "forcing mechanisms". These are processes such as variations in solar radiation, variations in the earth's orbit, variations in reflectivity of the continents, atmosphere, and oceans, mountain-building and continental drift and changes in greenhouse gas concentrations.

The Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June 1992, established the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) as an organization to "stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent danger to the climate system. The Kyoto Protocol came to effect In 1997 and established legally binding obligations for developed countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions in the period 2008-2012. In 2015, the Paris Agreement was adopted, governing emission reductions through commitments of countries in ambitious Nationally Determined Contributions.

Climate Change is also affecting the countries in East Africa. The recurrent droughts, floods, glacier melting on mountains and few coping mechanisms all combine to increase people’s vulnerability to climate change. Floods and droughts have caused damage to poor people and loss of life, reduced income generating opportunities and increased the cost of doing business in most parts of the East African countries. Climate change and variability are considered to be the major threats to sustainable development. East Africa and the rest of African states are considered vulnerable to climate change effects largely due to lack of financial, institutional and technological capacity.

The Paris Agreement on Climate Change
The UNFCCC Conference of Parties 21 (COP 21) in December 2015 in Paris adopted an international legally binding agreement applicable to all Parties' (the Paris Agreement) . The Paris Agreement is expected to enter into force before 2020. In the period to 2020, ambition of UNFCCC Parties still has to increase, in view of limiting global warming to below two degrees Celsius.

Developed country Parties to UNFCCC, are urged 'to provide and mobilize enhanced financial support to developing country Parties for ambitious mitigation and adaptation actions, especially to Parties that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change. A precondition for such enhanced climate action by developing countries, especially the most vulnerable ones, is their full inclusion in UNFCCC decision-making processes, as well as dedicated support for a number of selected priority thematic actions. Therefore, as was practice in previous Climate Change Protocols, a number of activities are proposed that are well integrated within mitigation and adaptation portfolio.

The Paris Agreement on climate change lays out commitments for nations to limit their greenhouse-gas emissions that contain the impact of global warming. The commitments which are contributions that each individual country should make in order to achieve the worldwide climate goals are determined by all countries individually and called "nationally determined contributions" (NDCs). According to the Paris Agreement's article 4.19: "All Parties should strive to formulate and communicate long-term Low Emission Development Strategies (LEDS), taking into account their common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, in the light of different national circumstances." The LEDS are a crucial policy tool that can help to place short-term actions in the context of the long-term structural changes required for transition to a low-carbon, resilient economy by 2050.

Energy Technologies with Low Carbon Effects
The sustainable development in East African Countries will need energy. The challenge these countries may face is to use energy without warming the planet further, as this would cause additional dangerous climate impacts that could undermine development gains. While it might seem counter-intuitive, low-carbon development should be part and parcel of development undertakings and climate change adaptation strategies. Each of the East African Countries has its development goals. In order to achieve these goals, the country in the region will increase their energy access and so the per capita carbon emissions increase from the current level proportionately in the region. These countries must address climate change in ways that will increase access to energy access with low carbon effects and minimise the trade-offs between climate change mitigation, adaptation and development. The increase in energy access among others may include renewable and energy efficient technologies which in another name called sustainable energy technologies.

TaTEDO Efforts on Climate Change
TaTEDO has undertaken a number of initiatives to strengthen capacity for addressing climate change effects through mitigation and adaptation measures not only to itself but also to its local partners and communities. TaTEDO using consultation from Kenya and South Africa, developed capacity for climate change mitigation and adaptation in Tanzania. Capacity building on climate change included:
• TaTEDO has managed to build staff capacity in climate change mitigation through CDM
Golden Standards and developing fundable CDM proposals.
• PINs and PDD were developed for the cookstove project which was implemented
through voluntary carbon methods in Rombo and Hai Districts.
• Formed partnership with E&Co Tanzania Limited to support SEECO Company to develop
a charcoal stove carbon project -registered under the gold standard voluntary carbon
• Implemented a project Green Charcoal for Reduction of Deforestation and Green
House Gases (GHG) Emissions
• Promoting pro-poor Low Carbon Development Strategies with SustainableEnergy,
CAN(Uganda) and FIDESMO (Mozambique)

TaTEDO has managed to developing fundable CDM project documents in relation to energy and environment sectors. Following this achievements, improved woodfuel stoves project based on the voluntary carbon market was implemented in Kilimanjaro.

TaTEDO Efforts on Low Carbon Energy Technologies
TaTEDO efforts on low emission takes advantage of the movement of wind and water, the heat and light of the sun and the biomass in plants and animals that can meet energy needs in a sustainable way. A variety of methods are available to convert those sustainable energy resources into fuels and electricity. Sustainable energy has the potential to reduce greenhouse emissions, slow global warming, reduce poverty, and move communities in East Africa toward a pro-poor, cleaner, healthier energy future.

Biomass Energy
Many households in East Africa use firewood and charcoal with a low thermal efficiency and produce high amounts of noxious emissions. This contributes to the overuse of forest resources and has adverse impacts on people’s health. Improved biomass cookstoves are more efficient than regular ones and produce smaller amounts of harmful emissions. Biomass resources can be used to produce both fuels and electricity. These are diverse; including energy crops, agricultural waste, manure, forest products and waste, and urban waste. Biomass energy can either produced from solid, liquid and gaseous forms depending on the type of feedstock and conversion methods.

TaTEDO has been developing these forms of sustainable energy resource using pro-poor sustainable energy technologies with characteristics of low carbon emissions

Solid biofuel technologies (products) are (i) sustainable charcoal production methods (ii) energy efficient firewood stoves (iii) efficient charcoal stoves and ovens and (iv) efficient tree planting and management practices. TaTEDO advocates for three types of kilns. These are Improved Basic Earthmound Kiln (IBEK), Half Orange Charcoal Kiln (HOCK) and Retort Kiln. Energy efficient firewood stoves are of three types depending on type of construction materials and their costs. These are improved brick made firewood stoves, low cost stove and Kuni-mbili stoves. Energy efficient charcoal stoves and ovens can be categorized into improved charcoal saving stoves (Straight, Bell-bottom and Sazawa), Double Plates (Stand and Box), Meat Roasting Ovens (Teksawa and Nyama Choma) and Baking Ovens (Households and SMEs). The sustainable charcoal production skills are mostly disseminated to normal charcoal producers while HOCKs are put up in wood factories for recycling the wood leftovers into charcoals.

TaTEDO has come up with means of converting agro-wastes into useful resource for generating income, producing alternative cooking fuels and increasing agricultural productivity. The agro wastes pilled agro-based industries are filled in the retort kiln semi-drums. The agro-wastes are carbonized by using retort kiln through process called pyrolysis to produce carbonized residue (bio-char). The carbonized residues are processed into briquettes which are enterprises for increasing rural employment, income generation, etc. Low quality cassava flour is used as binder. When carbonized residues are used for increasing agricultural productivity are called bio-char. Biochar has been proved to benefit crop growth and yield and therefore is a promising amendment for use in agriculture fields.

Solar Energy
The sun provides a tremendous resource for generating clean and sustainable electricity without toxic pollution or global warming emissions. There are no global warming emissions associated with generating electricity or heat from solar energy, there are emissions associated with other stages of the solar life-cycle, including manufacturing, materials transportation, installation, maintenance, and decommissioning and dismantlement. Most estimates of life-cycle emissions for photo-voltaic systems are between 0.07 and 0.18 pounds of carbon dioxide equivalent per kilowatt-hour. This is far less than the life-cycle emission rates for fossil fuels (petrol, natural gas and coal).

TaTEDO has been promoting solar electric systems for households and small business like phones charging and for social institutions such as dispensaries and schools.

Promotion of the solar PV technology has increased public awareness on potentials to access lighting, radio and TV/video services. Several customers in the community are getting connected with solar PV systems. TaTEDO has been striving to increase number of Solar Home System (SHS) customers by linking them with the existing local micro-financial institutions such as SACCOS for accessing loans in order to purchase solar PV systems.

Solar phone multi-chargers enable people to charge cellular phones and create possibilities for income generation in the off-grid areas. Solar phone multi-charging station businesses have been tested in several off-grid areas in Tanzania.

Solar drying technology is one of ways for preserving food and stimulates income-generating activities. Through this technology, TaTEDO conducts demonstrations and training on solar drying technology to entrepreneurs and provides support to solar drying enterprises through provision of relevant information on solar drying technology and assist in market development.

Solar lanterns are used as a direct substitution for portable kerosene lantern. Lanterns come with a solar PV charger, for each unit or as a charging station. A fully charged lantern can be used for at least 5 hours continuously.

Wind Energy
Harnessing power from the wind is one of the cleanest and most sustainable ways to generate electricity as it produces no toxic pollution or global warming emissions. TaTEDO participated in a research to identify areas with potential wind speed in order to generate electricity for domestic and commercial use. A number of potential sites were identified and involved collection of information for future development of wind energy in Tanzania. At the end of the project, four sites were identified. These are: Gomvu (Dar es Salaam), Litembe (Mtwara), Mkumbara (Korogwe) and Karatu. Through special software known as Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Programme (WAsP), a one-year record of wind speeds and direction was used to project the long-term wind regime, which is very crucial in designing wind farms for electricity generation. Based on the analysis made, the most promising sites are Mkumbara and Karatu with average annual wind speeds of about 4.9 m/s and 5.5 Vr/m respectively. Other areas where assessments have been conducted are Kititimo (Singida) and Makambako (Iringa) which have been identified as having adequate wind speeds for grid-scale electricity generation. At Kititimo wind speeds average 9.9 miles per second and at Makambako they averaged 8.9 miles per second at a height of 30 m.

TaTEDO as sustainable energy centre also developed a small micro wind turbine at Mbezi Juu. Due to geographical position and potential of this place a bigger wind turbine is needed. The electricity generated from other stand-alone systems at the centre together with one from wind turbine can help to alleviate the shortage of hydro electricity that prevails during the dry season or power ration.

Small Hydro
TaTEDO has identified more than forty potential sites for micro hydro electricity production in Tanzania. Out of 40 sites, one site located at Kinko village, Lushoto District in Tanga Region was developed. The village is electrified by a 10KW micro-hydro plant. This was possible through a joint efforts of the project implemented with UNIDO.

Low Carbon Energy Technologies for Rural Electrification
TaTEDO has continued to implement rural electrification initiatives in order to contribute to the ongoing efforts of improving access to electricity for rural population in Tanzania. A large number of households and people received electricity through solar PV Systems (mostly for lighting and phone charging). This was followed by Energy Services Platforms (ESPs) which are currently installed in 20 villages in Tanzania.

Solar PV systems were installed in areas which brought their request to TaTEDO. Most of TaTEDO partners have capacity for installing these sustainable energy systems. Solar Phone Multi-chargers were implemented in off-grid areas to support telecommunication services. This is a way of enabling a large number of people to charge their cell-phones and communicate from remote rural areas

Low Carbon Energy Technologies for Poverty Reduction
As a sustainable energy organization the objective is to scale up and commercialize sustainable modern energy technologies and services through self-sustaining markets networks for meeting productive energy needs in households, institutions and small and medium entrepreneurs. TaTEDO aims at contributing to poverty reduction and environmental conservation through increased access to sustainable modern energy technologies and services not only in Tanzania but also through knowledge sharing and regional cooperation with Kenya and Ugandan partners. Through enterprise development and commercialization of modern energy technologies men and women entrepreneurs are supported to scale up dissemination of sustainable modern energy technologies and services. The institutional and financial barriers hindering commercialization of these technologies are addressed in order to allow entrepreneurs to conduct viable and profitable businesses.

TaTEDO also promotes productive uses of energy,” which is the context of providing modern energy services in rural areas. A productive use of energy is one that involves the application of energy derived mainly from renewable resources to create goods and/or services either directly or indirectly for the production of income or value.” The organization has been created employment to more than 6,500 people in urban and rural areas and created more than 1,950 income generating enterprises. In addition, TaTEDO has electrified 1,503 households, 367 SMEs, 86 schools, 64 health centres by renewable energy stand-alone systems and connection from mini-grids.

Future Prospects of Low Emission Solutions in Tanzania
East Africa is blessed with abundant, high-quality low carbon energy resources, which are largely untapped. Currently, the East African countries can generate electricity from renewable energy resources, including captive generation in sugar, tannin and sisal factories, which if could be tapped will greatly contribute to the efforts of low emission solutions.

Many parts of East Africa are located away from the main national electricity grid and have little realistic prospect of becoming connected in the near future. Solar home systems and biomass related mini-grids are viable options for lighting. For business enterprises which require lights for elongating time of doing businesses, solar has high potential of improving performance and revenue in these types of commercial enterprises. Compared to mini-grids powered by diesel generators, green mini-grids offer the prospect of more reliable and cheaper electricity, as well as greenhouse gas emission reductions.

There is high potential of extending low emission energy technologies in off-grid areas not only to Tanzania but also in other East African countries. TaTEDO main areas are solid biomass, biowastes, solar, wind and small hydro. Possibly, other organisations in East Africa could get experiences from TaTEDO and find ways to exploit other areas based on the endowment of energy resources in their countries. The rapid growth of the solar PV market began in the 1980s developed further to the extent of emerging a few solar energy enterprises due to capacity created by TaTEDO which led to establishment of Tanzania Solar Energy Association (TASEA) (Now a day called TAREA). There was also collaboration of developing low carbon emission technologies (solar PV inclusive) with other East African countries through East Africa Energy Technology Development Network (EAETDN). Sustainable energy applications are progressively finding their markets to different areas in East Africa both on-grid and off-grid areas. There is high prospect of investing in these areas and serve the planet due to renewable energy technology characteristics of generating low emissions.

The future challenge of East Africa countries is to develop capacity for meeting the future energy demands of its rapidly growing urban population without depleting its forests. The improved cook stoves, biogas, green charcoal and use of biowastes for sustainable energy by TaTEDO are other areas which require resources for future development. There is possibility of investing in these areas and cut much of emissions from households, institutions and SMEs in urban and rural areas. There is possibility of potential of converting bio-residues into green charcoal (briquettes) and bio-char. According to Hanne K, 2012, the net GHG emission reduction when replacing charcoal from miombo woodlands with these charcoal briquettes is 78–557 kg of CO2eq MWh−1, or 42–84%, depending on whether the substituted charcoal can be considered carbon neutral or not. With respect to biogas, some of the envisaged benefits of biogas use to the national economy include the avoidable CO2 emissions. If biogas displaces kerosene, at least between 357–60,952 tons of CO2 per annum would be avoided.

Improved cookstoves are more efficient and significantly reduce cooking time and fuel consumption compared with unimproved traditional three stone fireplaces and metal charcoal stoves. In addition, well performing improved cook stoves help significantly reducing fine particle emissions. High-quality non-carbonized briquettes as well as firewood are more eco-efficient than charcoal. This means that their carbon footprint, i.e. the amount of greenhouse gases that they emit, is smaller and consumer costs are low. For this reason, people need to be supported in climbing up the energy ladder from traditional three stone stoves to the use of improved cookstoves and later switch to more low emission and efficient cooking fuels and technologies.

The stakeholders in the East Africa are encouraged to promote low emission energy technologies such as solar PVs, biowastes gasifirers, wind, small hydro and improved firewood and non-carbonized briquette value chains, on account of their smaller carbon footprints. The high annual growth rate of the urban population (around 4%) leads to a continued increase in the demand for energy (both electricity and fuels). Therefore, the present priority in the East African Countries is to target the period of transition from traditional energy (inefficacy use of biomass and kerosene) to modern energy services of using solar, wind, small hydro, gasification, etc. There many low emission solutions that could be recommended to urban and rural communities in East Africa. However, adequate solutions should take into account people’s current practices and preference for sustainable energy technologies while helping to reduce health hazards from noxious emissions and environmental impacts.
CSOs call for renewed political will on climate change interventions
CSOs call for renewed political will on climate change interventionsReported by Mr. Gerald Kitabu, The Guardian, May 16, 2017

THE Tanzania Traditional Energy Development Organization (TaTEDO) has said that there is a need for renewed political will on climate change based on the Paris Agreement (PA) resolutions, commitment and greater engagement with the government and regional bodies.

TaTEDO’s Executive Director Estomih Sawe said with renewed political will, it will help to achieve effective implementation of the nationally determined contributions (NDCs) and the associated low emission development strategies (LEDSs)

He was speaking at a meeting on promoting implementation of the PA in East Africa with a focus on pro-poor low emission development in Dar es Salaam recently.
He said that experience has shown that, barriers to enhancing LEDSs for the poor may not necessarily be technological, but inadequate political will and investment in pro-poor low emission solutions.

He said the objective of the newly adopted agreement on climate change is to limit the rise of global temperature - during this century to below 2 degrees Celsius and to further drive efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels.

The Paris Agreement documents the international community’s commitment to global transformation towards a climate friendly economy, but it also contains comprehensive stipulations on adapting to climate change, dealing with loss and damage caused by the consequences of global warming, and financial commitments and other offers by the developed countries.

“The challenge before us now is to understand the Paris Agreement and its useful content and translate this into concrete actions by all the parties to convention, in the country and East Africa,” he said.

The current project on promoting the implementation of the Paris Agreement in East Africa with focus on pro-poor low emission development strategies aims at contributing to the understanding of the Paris Agreement and promotes its implementation.

“In line with the project objectives and current efforts of the government and the EAC, we as the CSOs, would like to contribute efforts in the process of the formulation, implementation and review of the NDCs and LEDSs based on the pro-poor, gender responsive policies, strategies and programmes,” he added.

He said the efforts to succeed will indeed require greater collaborative actions with increased financing, enhanced capacities and greater participation of the key stakeholders including CSOs at the national, regional and international levels.

Program Manager for Climate Change and Energy, Mary Swai, explained that the PA requires all parties to communicate their ambitious efforts through NDCs and to strengthen these efforts in the years ahead. Furthermore, parties are required to develop longer-term strategies.

She said developed countries are required to provide financial resources to assist developing countries with respect to both mitigation and adaptation.

”Currently more than 70 percent of all natural disasters in Tanzania are climate change related and are linked to recurrent droughts and floods,” she said.
The CSOs recommend that the NDCs are one of the cornerstones of international climate policies as they include the targets and measures that each country commits to with the Paris Agreement.

The implementation of the Paris Agreement is essential for the achievement of the SDGs, and provides a roadmap for climate actions that will reduce emissions and build climate resilience. She further added that the effective NDCs and LEDSs should lead to a transformation in carbon-intensive sectors and industry;

She said the process should be transparent and inclusive so that stakeholders can track progress and ensure countries meet their stated targets and the sustainable development goals.

It should also consider small scale adaptation and mitigation solutions which are effective and efficient to help lift the most vulnerable out of poverty.

Contributing to the PA, the civil society organizations called on developed countries and international organizations in-charge of the climate funding including green climate fund and adaptation fund to soften conditions of accessing the funds so they could effectively and efficiently participate to promote the implementation of the Paris Agreement.

The funds are within the framework of the UNFCCC founded as a mechanism to assist developing countries in adaptation and mitigation practices to counter climate agreed at the PA. However, experience has shown that accessing the funds is an uphill task due to tough conditions.

Program officer for Climate Action Network Tanzania, Msololo Onditi said that many CSOs will fail to access the funds, as a result, the financial constrains will hinder the on-going promotion of the PA implementation especially to CSOs which represent the poor.

Commenting on the level of awareness among the general public, he said the PA is meant to engage almost all sectors but stakeholders are not aware.

Citing an example, Onditi said it is possible that the agreement is not clear even to local government officials at regional and district level, such ignorance will be a challenge for them to implement the agreement effectively and efficiently.

Awareness raising among the civil societies, local communities and the general public in key sectors such as agriculture, fisheries and forestry is crucial. Low priority and poor dissemination of relevant policies, strategies, and plans to the local communities were also cited as obstacles.

“I would like to advice the central government to decentralize these international agreements and policies and raise awareness among the general public for enhanced implementation. Collective and common understanding of the PA will help in the implementation across levels and sectors,” he said.

Explaining the importance of coordination within the East African countries, communication officer for Tanzania Forest Conservation Group (TFCG) Bettie Luwuge said there reports indicate that all East African countries have signed the Paris Agreement and are at different stages of ratification.

The PA aims to strengthen the global response to the threat of climate change, in the context of SD and efforts to eradicate poverty. It gives hope for meeting climate change challenges and limit global warming below 20C.

This calls for strategic attention from the key sector ministries that are main contributors of GHG emissions and are highly affected by the impacts of climate change. Such sectors include agriculture, forestry, energy, infrastructure and transport.

While dealing with critical issues affecting our environment, an integrated approach towards implementation of the Paris Agreement is necessary at country level in order to tap available opportunities and potential

All national initiatives related to climate change adaptation and mitigation should be aligned strategically to the sector ministries policies and implementation structures.

She said sector ministries should be held accountable by the respective ministry to show how they contribute to addressing effects of climate change starting from their respective budgets to implementation strategies.

“If sector ministries work in solos to address climate change and environmental issues, we see little impact achieved using millions of dollars,” she said.

Assistant program officer for ForumCC, Jonathan Sawaya said so far what CSOs have been observing is that; the world is moving from negotiation mood to implementation of the PA.

So, there is a need for the stakeholders to understand the PA and to make sure local communities are at the centre of the PA, especially the poor.

Commenting on access to Green Climate Fund (GCF) he said, it seems the Tanzanian institutions do not have that capacity to access the GCF as the national implementing entity (NIE).

Sawaya advised that the moment there is a need to work with accredited multilateral institutions such as UNDP, FAO, IUCN, etc. while efforts are being made at national level to have direct access to the funds.

“Civil society organizations must keep eye open and make follow-ups on what is going on so that they don’t miss the opportunity,” he said.

Promoting Implementation of the Paris Agreement (PIPA) in East Africa with a focus on pro-poor low emission development is a project implemented in three East African countries including Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda.

The development objective of the project is to contribute to strengthening the pro-poor focus and climate change ambitions in the implementation of the Paris Agreement in East Africa.

Bamboo Farming in Tanzania – A New Source of Construction Materials and Energy for Domestic Uses.
Bamboo Farming in Tanzania – A New Source of Construction Materials and Energy for Domestic Uses.J. Shuma -TaTEDO

Recently, bamboo has emerged as a new source of biomass for energy production. Many studies and research has been conducted to evaluate the suitability of bamboo as a source of energy. Studies have been carried out in many countries (mostly where bamboos are abundant such as China, India, Indonesia and Thailand). Many studies referred to bamboo as a competent alternative for biomass resource.

Bamboo is a member of grass family (Gramineae), subfamily Bambusoideae. The bamboo forests in Tanzania cover an estimated area of 127,000 ha with standing stock of approximately 1200 million running metres (Chihongo, 2000 Pers. comm.) These forests are mainly found in two ecological zones that are the high rainfall forests of the Eastern Arc Mountains and Lowland areas. A special research done by Shimoda (1966) was aimed to research on bamboo regarding distribution and species composition in Tanzania.

In Tanzania there are three main species of bamboo. These include Arundinaria alpina and close family species A. tolange, Oxytenanthera abyssinica and close family species O. braunii and Oreobambos buchwaldii on the other hand Bambusa vulgaris var striata together with B. multiplex, B. nutans, Chimono-bambusa hookeriana and B. bambos constitute the exotic bamboo species that have shown good growth within the Tanzanian local conditions (Chihongo, 2000 Pers. Comm.). Although bamboo is flexible and lightweight, it has received hardness or strength, ratings higher than many hardwoods. Bamboo is characterized as the fast growing plants which reduce rate of deforestation and for income generation.

There are several ways to recover energy from bamboo biomass, each process results in different products, which can be utilized in many aspects. Bamboo biomass can be processed in various ways (thermal or biochemical conversion) to produce different energy products (charcoal, syngas and biofuels), which can be substitutions for existing fossil fuel products.

Dry bamboo biomass whether firewood or charcoal can be used as firewood to generate heat for cooking, boiling and warming in households. It is a good source of energy for remote area where people cannot access electricity.

Pyrolysis is the thermal degradation of organic materials at a moderate temperature (350 to 600ºC) in the absence of oxygen. The products of pyrolysis process consist of charcoal (solid phase), condensable pyrolysis oils (heavy aromatic and hydrocarbons) and tars (liquid phase) and con-condensable gases or syngas (gaseous phase). Charcoal can be used as a secondary fuel the same way that coal has been used. Syngas, consists of carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane, can be burnt in a boiler for electricity generation or in a gas engine for power production. Pyrolysis oils can be further processed in “bio-refinery”, very similar to the current crude oil refinery process, to produce bio-fuels and other useful chemical products.

The two importance advantages of biomass over fossil fuel are sustainability and level of CO2 emission. Bamboo biomass is a renewable source which means it can re-generated in a sustainable rate for extraction. Although the processing of biomass (thermal conversion and biochemical conversion) also release CO2, it does not contribute to the increasing of greenhouse gases concentration in the atmosphere because the CO2 emitted from these process is the very same carbon dioxide in the atmosphere fixed by photosynthesis within the bamboos.

The idea to cultivate bamboo may sound strange in Tanzania but the fact that deforestation is taking place at an alarming rate with unparalleled tree planting efforts; time has come for Tanzania to learn from other countries about alternative measures to mitigate effects of climate change. Limited efforts towards those alternative measures have been practised by the TFS North Ruvu Forest Plantation where field staff are sowing bamboo seeds from Asian Countries and transplanting thousands of seedlings to the forest land. Bamboo species promoted by the Ruvu North Forest Plantation are Bambusa bambos, Dendrocalamus aspar, Dendrocalamus membranaey and local species (Bambusa Vulgaris).

According to their meeting with members of the Voice of Firewood and Charcoal Stakeholders Taskforce (VFCS) during the study tour to the Ruvu North Forest Plantation in April 10, 2017, plantation management said that the lion’s share could be earned by Tanzanians, because plantation will be in the position to produce a vast range bamboo-based products from poles for construction, charcoal, furniture, baskets and scaffolding to luxury flooring and foods. The Voice of Firewood and Charcoal Stakeholders (VFCS) is a task force which is looking for alternative means of using non-forest products as energy for cooking that will benefit the majority in rural and urban areas. The taskforce is comprised of members from TaTEDO, TASONABI and activists of biomass energy resources.

Accrding to Ruvu management, scaling up requires expertise in specialized areas such as micro-enterprise development, small-scale or industrial bamboo growing and production of bamboo products that might be better found in the private sector. Bamboo will bring wealth to the people, cleans rivers, stops soil erosion, and so on. Bamboo also will generate income to the people through production of bamboo products such as bamboo textile products; and bamboo energy products ranging from generation of electricity to briquettes for mass domestic use.

Bamboo has been increasing in importance as a non-timber forest product in Tanzania over the last two decades, according to INBAR. Locally bamboo is sought for handicrafts, residential fencing, flower farming, farm props for banana plantations, furniture and other minor cottage industry products like basketry and toothpicks.

Almost all the bamboo products made in the country are used domestically. Bamboo farms should be established to ensure a sustainable supply for the handicraft, construction and horticultural industries, among others.

Did You Know that Rural Energy Master Plan Study has been Launched in Tanzania?
Did You Know that Rural Energy Master Plan Study has been Launched in Tanzania?
Tanzania is confronting a major challenge related to expansion of rural energy services. Energy is the main driver of the social economic development and the Government of Tanzania considers availability of energy as necessary to catalyze economic growth.

Currently, only 25% of the rural population has access to electricity services. Through establishment of the Rural Energy Agency (REA) the expansion of the electricity and other modern energy services to rural communities has been accelerated in recent years. Due to the size of the country, high demand for electricity and limited resources the efforts to expand these services have been facing great challenges.

In collaboration with other key stakeholders, the Government through REA has recognized the importance of coordinated efforts in implementing and ensuring sustainable rural energy services through a Master Plan; which was officially launched on 6th April, 2017 followed by series of meetings with various stakeholders to put strategies for the best Master Plan.

TaTEDO is part of the consortium which is preparing the Master plan together with the Multiconsult and IED. The master plan aims at supporting energy sector policies and initiatives towards ensuring reliable and cost efficient energy services for social and productive use, rational and efficient use of energy, and energy conservation. The plan will define the priority order of energy provision including energy for lighting and cooking, electrification schemes both grid extensions and off grid schemes based on economic, financial, environmental and social criteria. The plan will evaluate possibilities through market mechanisms, tariff settings and subsidies to increase access to energy especially among the rural poor, assess the possibilities to reduce the cost of electrification through adoption of low cost options in distribution technology, and estimate the financing requirements to implement the programme.

Moreover, it will encourage development of available energy resources in rural off-grid areas and increased contribution of renewable energy sources in the national energy balance.
The overall objective of this assignment is to provide the Rural Energy Agency (REA), with an up-to-date tool for planning and implementation of rural energy provision meeting target set in the National Energy Policy, National Strategy for Growth and Poverty Alleviation (MKUKUTA) and Sustainable Energy for All (SE4ALL) goals. The plan is also aimed at exploitation and utilization of renewable energy sources for improved energy supplies in the country.

The Rural Energy Master Plan will cover the period 2018 – 2030 to match that of Sustainable Energy for All. The planning work shall be performed in close cooperation with the Ministry of Energy & Minerals (MEM) and other stakeholders in the field of rural energy provision.

PIPA Project National Inception Workshop, March 7, 2017, SEDC Conference Hall, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
PIPA Project National Inception Workshop, March 7, 2017, SEDC Conference Hall, Dar es Salaam, TanzaniaEast African Community’s member states are among 197parties which signed the Paris Agreement in New York, US, paving the way for the global pact to enter into force. The Paris agreement sets a goal of limiting global warming by capping temperature rise to 2oC while aiming at a target of 1.5oC. Part of the effort include parties to pursue domestic mitigation measures with the aim of achieving the objectives of the convention.

The CSOs in the East Africa are contributing to the implementation of Paris Agreement through the project named Promoting Implementation of Paris Agreement in East Africa with Focus on Pro-Poor Low Emission Development (PIPA). Objective of the project is to contribute to strengthen the pro-poor focus and climate change ambitions in the implementation of the Paris Agreement in East Africa. The overall objective of the project is to contribute to strengthen the pro-poor focus and climate change ambitions in the implementation of the Paris Agreement in East Africa. The project has potential to contribute to higher awareness on the benefit of low emission investments, development of more ambitious NDCs and LEDSs, and contribute to more constructive national positions at climate negotiations and other international fora.This project is implemented in partnership with Sustainable Energy (SE) of Denmark, International Network for Sustainable Energy (INFORSE), Tanzania Traditional Energy Development Organization (TaTEDO), Sustainable Environmental Development Watch Kenya (SusWatch Kenya) and Uganda Coalition for Sustainable Development (UCSD) through the project called.

On March 7th 2017, the PIPA project was launched in Tanzania through the national inception workshop held at TaTEDO, SEDC Conference Hall, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A total of 23 participants from the Mass Media, Private Sector, Government, Academic Institutions, Youth and Women Groups attended the workshop. The workshop aimed to fulfill objectives of introducing the PIPA project to the partners/coalition members to buy in the idea and to assess partner’s needs for capacity building to be able to participate in implementation of the PIPA project.

The workshop provided an opportunity to discuss on status of implementation of Paris Agreement at national and international level.A number of issues were raised and discussed including:-
Ratification:, stakeholders wanted to know Tanzania status on ratification as more than 133 out of 197 parties have ratified the Paris Agreement,
Accreditation: It was noted that so far there was no national entity accredited for Green Climate Fund, stakeholders felt that it is a lost opportunity for the country.
Adoption: There is low adoption of Paris Agreement and low mainstreaming of emission development solutions in the national development plans, policies, strategies, etc.
Statistics: Accuracy on data for GHGs emission is debatable. the country is lacking up-to-date data for GHG emissions; there is a need to work out on this issue.
Awareness:Stakeholders in addition, argued on low awareness of Paris Agreement/low emission development solutions at all levels; there is a need to promote the agreement.

Stakeholders agreed on how to engage to the process to ensure their views and recommendations are heard and incorporated in the Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) and the Low Emission Development Strategies (LEDS) of Tanzania. As a way forward, stakeholder were called upon to improve knowledge on Paris agreement/low emission development through existing online information to bring a meaningful participation in implementation of the PIPA project and enable them to explore associated opportunities including thinking of developing a joint proposal for resource mobilization from potential sources of climate finances.

Promoting Implementation of the Paris Agreement (PIPA) in East Africa with a Focus on Pro-Poor Low Emission Development
Promoting Implementation of the Paris Agreement (PIPA) in East Africa with a Focus on Pro-Poor Low Emission DevelopmentPromoting Implementation of the Paris Agreement (PIPA) in East Africa with a focus on pro-poor low emission development project is being implemented in Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda in partnership with Sustainable Energy (SE) of Denmark, International Network for Sustainable Energy (INFORSE), Tanzania Traditional Energy Development Organization (TaTEDO), Sustainable Environmental Development Watch Kenya (SusWatch Kenya) and Uganda Coalition for Sustainable Development (UCSD).

Project Development objective: Contribute to strengthen the pro-poor focus and climate change ambitionsin the implementation of the Paris Agreement in East Africa.

Target Group & Participants
The primary target group and participants in this project are the CSOs in Tanzania, Kenya, and Uganda working on climate change, women’s associations, youth associations, climate change networks, associations of farmers, and associations of businesses that are involved in low emission development solutions. The primary target group will create awareness on the national framework climate change policy and legislation process, on-going endeavours to improve the NDCs and further integration of climate change into development plans for 2018-2022. A well-functioning regional cooperation could contribute to increase the capacities in these fields of the countries and give synergies.

The secondary target group is national, regional, and international decision-makers as well as relevant private sector actors. The secondary targets are the duty bearers whose decisions determine the course of development and allocate funds. At the national levels it is mainly ministries and government agencies involved. At the regional level, the main decision-makers targeted are relevant EAC institutions and committees; development partners working on climate change and energy related interventions, business entities, and media.
Expected outputs of the project

The project has potential to contribute to increased awareness on the benefit of low emission investments, development of more ambitious NDCs and LEDSs, and contribute to more constructive national positions at climate negotiations and other international fora.
• Nationally, CSO networks strengthened and participate actively to influence the NDCs and LEDSs.
• Regional CSO cooperation to influence the NDCs and LEDSs including financing strengthened.
• Increased coordinated CSO advocacy for an improved international framework including funding of NDCs and LEDSs.

MANZESE SECONDARY SCHOOL BIOGAS PROJECTIn May 2014 TaTEDO signed a contract with the United Nations Human Settlement Program of UN- HABITAT to implement a project for the construction of 200 m3 Biogas Plant at Manzese Secondary school in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The main objective of the project was to improve sanitation system at Manzese Secondary School with an environmentally friendly solution. The construction work of 200 m3 Biogas Plant at Manzese Secondary school in Dar es Salaam was completed in June 2015. During construction the following activities were undertaken

Site preparations and clearance were completed in September 2014 followed by excavation of 2 pits of 100m3 twin Bio latrine. After excavation the construction of bio digesters started.

TaTEDO Has Increased Energy Access through Mini grids and Solar PV systems in more than 100 Villages in Tanzania.
TaTEDO Has Increased Energy Access through Mini grids and Solar PV systems in more than 100 Villages in Tanzania.TaTEDO has finally achieved to reach a wider population of the marginalized communities in more than 100 villages in Tanzania through the EU/HIVOS supported programme on Up-Scaling Access to Integrated Modern Energy Services for Poverty Reduction. Under this programme more than 37,000 people from different rural communities have accessed energy services through different energy technologies such as Energy Services Platforms (ESP)/Multifunctional Platforms (MFPs) and Solar PV systems.

Two different types of ESP installed which included the ESP with mini grids and those with no mini grids. The ESP with mini grids were installed in 18 rural villages of Tanzania. The mini grids are located in different villages in Shinyanga, Manyara, Tanga, Tabora, Geita, Kagera, and Kilimanjaro Regions.

TaTEDO under EEP Programme has Improved the Social Services in Rural Tanzania
TaTEDO under EEP Programme has Improved the Social Services in Rural TanzaniaTaTEDO has successfully implemented a Sustainable Energy Project for Improving Education, Health and Business Services in Tanzania which was financed by Energy and Environment Partnership Programme (EEP). The project was implemented in the period of January 2013 to June 2015

The project was designed with the focus of improving modern energy access services in the social and business centers located in off grid areas. The aim of the project was to install sustainable energy systems and through its successes, the impacts to the beneficiaries could motivate other communities and institutions to request for scaling up and replication of similar technologies. The installed technologies included solar PV systems, solar water heaters and improved cook stoves.

Policy Brief - Biomass Energy: Marginalized but an Important Energy Source for the Majority in Tanzania
Biomass EnergyKEY MESSAGE
Biomass energy (mainly firewood and charcoal) has consistently figured around 90% of national energy demand for over 30 years. More than 95% of households in Tanzania use firewood and charcoal as their source of energy for cooking. Firewood and charcoal will continue to play an important role in the national energy mix for many years to come.

The sector employs more than 300,000 families and generates approximately TZS 1.6 trillion annually. Despite its key role, the sector is characterized by weak governance and poor law enforcement leading to deforestation and forest degradation. A clear policy, strategies and legal framework is required to guide the sustainable development and growth of biomass energy sector.